Thanks for responding. I'm not actually attacking any discipline here. In fact, I agree with what you've said, especially how we're "racing to build mathematical literacy." My suggestion here is that introducing "critical thinking" doesn't help at all. What you've thoughtfully described should be called "mathematical thinking." And you're right; when we're learning maths, we shouldn't be muddling with philosophical issues like "what's addition, really?" These are all genuine critical thinking. But it really isn't helpful in learning maths, or any of the sciences.
I believe the last few passages make this clear: If every surgeon is genuinely skeptical of their diagnosis, the healthcare industry will collapse overnight.
My critique is targeted at the commodification of education. We're mostly using "critical thinking" as a marketing entity. I argued that if we seriously muddle up "critical thinking" with, say, "mathematical thinking," things will end up disastrous.